The 4WD Glovebox Guide can be used as training manual to go with practical 4WD courses, so there’s a quiz at the end of the book.
Here’s the answers with brief explanations where it’s not obvious. For the question and a full explanation refer to the Glovebox Guide, or for more detail, the 4WD Handbook.
1. b. False. FWD stands for Front Wheel Drive. 4X4 is four wheels, four wheels driven. 4WD is four wheels driven.
2. b, d and e. 4WDs are not necessarily any wider or longer than roadcars, and use petrol or diesel. They do however weigh a bit more due to the extra drivetrain, and are slightly taller, and have offroad-oriented tyres.
3. d. Cannot be determined. For many vehicles the sum of the GVM and maximum braked tow weight exceeds the GCM.
4. a. and b. Even when wet, bitumen is a high-traction surface. If it was snow-covered that would be different.
5. c. and d. Windup is caused by the front propshaft rotating quicker than the rear. To fix it, you need to undo that, so reverse in a circle. If the windup is not severe, simoply taking the vehicle out of 4WD will work. and that can be easier with a slight backwards/fowards movement.
6. b. A centre differential lock is indeed a locking differentiual,but the term ‘locker’is commonly used to refer to a cross-axle locking differential.
7. a. b. and c.
8. b. Even if it’s “in 4WD” the front wheels are not driven if the hubs aren’t locked.
9. b. and c.
10. c. Any offroad work such as snow, mud or sand should see you disabling stability control. However, with some vehicles that’s done for you as modes are changed, and it doesn’t make much difference in some terrain like slow-speed rock work. It definitely makes a difference in the likes of sand.
11. b. LT or light-truck. Mud or all-terrain is a tread pattern not a tyre construction.
12.a. b. e. f. Lower rolling resistance offroad only, especially in soft terrain. You actually lose a little ground clearnace, and you definitely don’t improve onroad handling as low tyre pressures on road are dangerous.
13. c. If the tyres have broken traction then adding more power will just further push the tyres away from their traction limit.
14. a. A 9-3 grip is most efficient, thumbs out so they don’t get broken, and you WILL need to shuffle steer.
15. b. e. f. g. Don’t stay central over crests, it’s a good way to have a head-on. Slow down and move off to one side. You should run lower tyre pressures, and that means lower speed. Never swerve for potholes or animals.
16. b. d. If it’s shallow you don’t need speed. Low gears promote wheelspin. Ruts are always your friend provided they go where you want to and aren’t too deep, which is usually the case in shallow mud.
17. a. d.This is where you need power. Still use the highest gears possible.
18. c. d. You very often need to put wheels on rocks for clearance, and all four wheels on the ground is generally better than having the vehicle perfectly level with only two on the ground.
19. b. c. e. f. g. If the car slows despite increasing throttle chances are you aren’t going to make it. Low range is absolutely appropirate for slow-speed work, say below 30km/h. Turning in soft sand makes four wheelmarks instead of two, about doubling your rolling resistance, so avoid.
20. None are true. Standard 4WDs can typically do 600-800mm, the best speed for a bow wave is dependent on the speed of the water as well as the depth, there’s no need to check shallow crossings, don’t change gears mid-stream, and an indirect path may well be the best.
21. a. c. Locking differentials often help both uphill and downhill. Generally use higher gears for ascents than descents. Electronic hill descent systems are now very good.
22. a. b. c.
24. a. c.
25. a. b. c. d. Don’t leave the engine running. Manuals need to be in gear, and there’s no advantage with automatics. You also risk inhaling exhaust fumes.
26. a. Stop and reassess frequently, maybe every metre or so. This also rests the winch and battery. Operate the winch inside the car, it’s safest, and you may need to do something like turn the steering wheel. Driving and winching at the same time can be done in certain situations where there’s no chance of the car moving by driving its wheels; then you reduce load on the winch.
27. b. c. Snatch blocks do not always give you mechanical advantage.
28. d. 112 is the international number for emergency services. The other three are myths. However, mobile phones can be used for 000 calls without unlocking, and will connect to whatever mobile network they can find.
29. a. Yes, only a!
30. a. This lists the items more likely to go wrong. b. lists things that are either unlikely to need replacing, or you could live without. Taking too much gear increases weight and complexity, which increases the chances of a failure.
31. b. Similar to #30, this focuses on what’s likely to fail. Most of a. should be checked before you set off on the trip.
32. d. e. Convoy driving is about teamwork.
33. a. b. c. But only where they feel able.
34. b. c. d. The bush is unpredictable so you can go too far with planning. Over-eating during breaks leads to tiredness, and coffee is a short-term stimulant. Naps of 30m lead to sleepiness afterwards; powernap to 15m maximum.
35. b. d. Keep weight low, so off the roofrack, and centralise it. The GVM is not a guide, it’s a hard limit.
36. d. There’s no such thing as “GPS” coordinates any more than there are “book” words. The datum is the point of origin of the coordinate system, and a map may be produced based on old data.
37. a. If you don’t use a zone you won’t know where in Australia, or the world, that set of UTM coordinates refers to. There’s three common different ways to write lat/long coordinates. The distance between UTM coordinates can easily be measured if they’re in the same zone, but easily not across zones. Some maps have no coordinates, but they should be avoided for bush use.
38. b. c. e. Street atlases are little use in the bush. GPS is a fantastic aid but always be aware of where you are without it. Odometer and clock checks (driven at approx 70km/h for one hour, approx west) help create an idea of where you are, and maybe where you’re not.
39. a. c. All field repairs should be checked by a professional in a workshop as soon as possible. 4WD tyres can be damaged with tyre tools or incorrect use , eg running over the carcass to debead it.
40. b. You are far more likely to be found, and if you’re lost then you don’t know which way you’re going.